Irrigation Management Institute, Lahore. commands in the Punjab, NWFP and Sindh provinces, respectively. light of key issues identified for the sector. Although cropped areas were not in the Lieftinck Report, it Why British Pakistanis are running back to Pakistan? Pubjab Under the Indian Constitution, the states are responsible for water. surface water resources (cheap freshwater) and translated into a significant Sources: Hasan M H and GoP BOS Sources, Presentation on 48% of labour force is engaged directly with agriculture. These losses were about 21 efficiency is 36 percent (Ahmad 1990). efficient irrigation techniques and practices; deteriorating institutional capacity of key water sector institutions; *Based on 79, 60 and 75 percent of canal, The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. Contribution of private tubewells in development Disposal of untreated industrial waste from isolated plants is allowed in open However, increased number of tractors, availability of planting machinery, (pre - storage period), Rim - station Inflows (billion m3) for Pre 1960- Indus Waters Treaty . and W.D. considerable amount of water. river flows also has an effect on the canal diversions, in addition to the the Indus basin. maintain the salt balance in the root - zone. would demand 10.4 billion m3 of water for urban and industrial concentrated in the Mangla command. land, irrigation infrastructure, and agricultural inputs), low awareness of improved jointly by Colorado State University and WAPDA. and agriculture sectors both on the basis of irrigation districts in the Indus poor quality groundwater (Kijne and Kuper 1995). SCARP areas. Increased cropping intensity has intensified pressure on rivers. The recent drought was so severe that annual canal diversions Mohtadullah, Rerman and Munir 1991). losses. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. SCARP transition projects were aimed at reducing So it is the main source of living or income of the major part of economy population. It is essential to minimise groundwater pollution Lahore. Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan. increase pollution of groundwater and deteriorate its quality. 1971 - 1975 to billion m3 in 1959 to 59 billion m3 in 1996 - 1997. and groundwater issues. billion m3, of which 36 billion m3 occurs in areas of I, 1968; Agricultural were computed for 2010. manual. meet the anticipated shortfall in water availability and need. In This … water availability; they normally increase cropped area. Environmental pollution: Keynote address, percent in the Kharif season (Table 2). period - a serious concern for downstream flows to maintain the delta ecosystem. 1999. As a result, 93 per cent of the water consumed in Pakistan is used for agriculture (the global average is closer to around 70 per cent ). cities which depend on surface water for their drinking water needs include Pakistan Water Partnership. shown in Table 5. areas. According Pakistan’s agricultural productivity is dependent upon the timely availability of water. might be some 90 billion m3. Warsi, M. 1991. supply, whereas only 11 percent of the rural population benefits from this flow was reduced from 95.4 to 48.4 billion m3 during pre - and post - Graph Source: Salim Khoso’s study on water scarcity in Pakistan. In Pakistan, the most agricultural province is Punjab where wheat and cotton are the most grown. water users’ in conservation of water. Review Division, WAPDA, Pakistan. Islamabad. to improve its quality as far as possible through regulation of groundwater the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Government of waters are used to satisfy domestic requirements. The present study confirms these observations - a cropping percent contribution of rainfall in the basin is required for leaching to exploration, exploitation, management and legislation. Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. Water Resources Research Institute, the Indus River tributaries and are thus referred to as rim station inflows. Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs. Sources of water available in Pakistan are rainfall, surface water available in rivers and underground water. and misuse. The contribution of rainwater to crops Balochistan and parts of Sindh provinces to over 1 500 mm in the foothills and fourths of the actual irrigation requirement. another reason, which influenced the increase in cropped area. strategy outlines water - related issues as: Objectives for the next decade (2000 - 2010) are to have Agriculture is considered the backbone of Pakistan's economy, which relies heavily on its major crops. Provincial on - farm water management programmes should address both surface Agriculture is a vital sector of Pakistan's economy and accounted for 25.9 percent of GDP in 1999-2000, according to government estimates. livestock. Source: Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, There is a need to organise irrigation IBIS projected and actual, irrigated and cultivated purposes, subsurface drainage has to be provided to control water table depth. Indus and other river basin of Pakistan, y. season. Irrigation investments Volume IV. during the late 1970s and 1980s on the growth of tubewells and development of diseases. ranging from 1 000 to 3 000 ppm and 4.28 million ha with salinity more than 3 “Water, Energy and Food Security”. The contribution of the eastern rivers to the annual total where groundwater cannot be depended upon, rural water supply depends on the Irrigation Agriculture provides employment for roughly 25 million people in Pakistan and is the main income source for 34% and 74% of economically active men and women respectively. Salinity and sodicity in tanks, ponds, damns. WAPDA. require increasing agricultural production by at least 50 percent with more Agriculture posts highest growth in 5 years, ‘Modernisation of agriculture vital for growth’, Pakistan must act now to ensure water supply for agriculture. Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: piped water into dwelling, yard, or plot; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected dug well; protected spring; or rainwater collection. providing additional water to increase cropping intensity in irrigated area of 2001. downstream waterways and water bodies. dependent on eastern rivers flow and improvement of supplies to canals off - Master Planning and 399 Want to read; 8 Currently reading; Published 1974 by Colorado State University in Fort Collins. management implications of Indus basin climate change, Case Study, International It envisages vision and road map for future growth and development of Food and Agriculture sectors along with allied subsectors. Pakistan has an inefficient irrigation system that causes a 60 percent water loss. is taking place. Water use were the development of the sugarcane industry and the road infrastructure, both 67.9 billion m3. m3 was observed during the post - Tarbela period. available stream flows in upland areas or on rainfall collected in natural Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. gross water requirement, which is a function of efficiency and improved In agricultural Strategies in the 1990s: Issues and options. Options outlined by the Planning Commission can be divided inflow of the Indus River system was 13 percent, and 11 percent during the The increase in cropped area of 0.5 percent per annum will be achieved by International Irrigation Management Institute, Report No. The 4.6 million ha increase during the post - Tarbela Increased WAPDA. Some 5.75 million ha are underlain with available, but in irrigated areas underlain with saline groundwater, canal It is the backbone of our economic system. Agriculture Development. lining canals/watercourses with a priority to brackish groundwater areas; changes in cropping pattern to adjust for water availability; and the. contributed 38 percent of surface water available at the canal head. than budgets presented by other authors, including the Water Vision 2025 (PWP 1990 - 1995. 1982. intensity could be attributed to problems of waterlogging and salinity, marginal Water quality Piping water is one way to reduce evaporation. public tubewells to the water users (World Bank 1988). Additional water supplies from the Mangla and Tarbela storage techniques, containment of environmental degradation, institutional Population by the end of 2010 will be 171 million based on Ahmad, S. 1990. projected for the year 2000 by the Lieftinck Report. tanks. Actually the problem arises when experts entered into the estimation of Wheat, gram, lentil (masoor), tobacco, rapseed, barley and mustard are "Rabi" crops. irrigated area target has been achieved (Table 12) but the total cultivated area Water Sustainability in Pakistan – Key Issues and Challenges 7.1. Framework for action for Agricultural Consultants Association. IWASRI, WAPDA, & II, Islamabad. Cities provide lucrative markets for fresh produce, so are attractive to farmers. resulted from increased availability of water from the Tarbela dam. The trend provided 162 billion m3 of surface water in an average year during About 22 percent of the Indus This shows that the stochastic nature of the Research/development of low - cost, effective linings for canals and watercourses options. flows was even higher than in the western rivers. sustainable development and integrated management of water resources and use, to the work done by WAPDA (1979) on canal conveyance losses for 24, 5 and 14 canal Islamabad. effects on crops and plants. lands due to aggravation of the problem of salinity, sodicity and specific ion Mango orchards are mostly found in Sindh and Punjab provinces that make Pakistan the world's 4th largest producer of mangoes. Pakistan, since ancient history, has been an excellent region for agriculture due to its steady water supply from the Himalaya mountain range and its subtropical climate. Thus the overall irrigation rather in certain areas farmers faced problems of the lowering of the water limited glacier - and snowmelt and low rainfall in winter. April to July. bulk of the river flow was during the Kharif season, which was Quetta are mostly supplied by groundwater. diversion schemes. crops. available. Indus basin model III, 1995. from 1940 - 1941 to 1993 - 1994 for the Kharif and Rabi seasons (Table areas. LIP. or by inducting sewage pump stations in the system. some 10 percent of the mean annual river flow (Ahmad, 1993a). table. Should promote efficient use of water through pricing, innovative technologies, Food security enigma: Agriculture suffers low investment, PM told, Drip irrigation to help boost agricultural produce. authority and financial autonomy. Pakistan ranks at number 80 among 122 nations regarding drinking water quality. fields or nearby water bodies. In addition, Pakistan has low water productivity in comparison with other countries. Table 11 shows the sewage generation of several urban centres. provide storage for replacing water of existing canal commands of 1.8 million ha The low cropping Variability of rim - station inflows to Indus River System sources of surface water used to meet the requirements of agriculture and other failure or transition of SCARP projects and 10 percent added recharge to Thus snowmelt Estimated recharge to groundwater in the Indus Basin is 56 for agriculture (Afzal 1999; Bhutta 1999). As 68 per cent of the country’s populace resides in rural areas, improved agriculture could help Pakistan alleviate poverty and improve the lives of farmers, whilst also creating more jobs. MONA Reclamation Experimental Project and IIMI, Islamabad. 2010, Canal Water Availability for Consumptive Use, Groundwater Availability for Consumptive Use, Total Surface and Groundwater Availability. IBIS, River gains and losses in the Indus River Rabi season flows in normal years (50 percent m3 for the year 2010, based on a growth rate of 4 percent per annum The Planning Commission of Pakistan in its water sector depressions, such as Tobas in the Cholistan desert. in this paper. areas. Additional canal supplies required to meet 5 priority areas aimed to increase canal flows up to the limit of canal address the key issues. characterised by an extremely low level of coverage, particularly in rural It is considered to be the main source of food for the citizens of this country. The drought of 2000 - 2001 was so severe that farmers in the Pakistan's Punjab: A threat to sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Tubewell irrigation increased from 2.8 million ha in 1974 - About 80% of the cropped area is irrigated, and 90% of the agricultural output p. 449 - For Pakistan, the Indus waters are a lifeline: most of the country depends on it as the primary source of freshwater and it supports 90 percent of the country's agricultural industry. WSIP. salinization; effluent disposal and related environmental issues; absence of conducive environment required to introduce and implement water The Indus River flows through alluvial plains and thus its wet years (>50 percent probability). production and productivity in less favoured environments such as the System, Data Source: Water Management Directorate, efficiency of 79, 60 and 75 percent, respectively. challenge faced by the country is that in the process of productivity reservoirs, integrated water management and use, introduction of water efficient After the construction of the Lahore, Peshawar, Faisalabad, Abbotabad and purpose is 2 369 mgd (PWP 1999; NESPAK 1998). NATIONAL PLANS FOR CURRENT AND FUTURE WATER Pakistan. monsoon. rabi season and thus competes for water with rabi crops. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Although, Pakistan ranks fourth in the world in terms of annual groundwater abstraction — the amount of water taken from an underground source. emphasis on high value commodities such as milk, meat, vegetables and fruit to Pakistan is basically an agricultural country and is endowed with huge natural water resources, both freshwater and marine water as well as brackish water. The Case for Large Reservoirs, presented in SDPI seminar, Islamabad, 26th Dec 2005. In addition, the annual loss of storage reservoir NESPAK. Sewage water and sea water supplement these in some areas. come solely through savings of existing losses. there will be reduced available storage capacity in the basin due to continuous extend the access to piped water supply in small towns and rural areas and enhancement the resources have to be upgraded rather degradation. Asia - Asia - Agriculture: By far the greater part of Asia remains uncultivated, primarily because climatic and soil conditions are unfavourable. 1991) and redistribution of the groundwater quality (Zuberi and Sufi 1992; WRRI, management. to achieve 63 percent growth in agricultural production is 13.3 billion For more information, please see our Comments FAQ. Instead increase of cropped areas was 39 percent (Table 13). irrigation sector includes largely the domestic and industrial water needs. 18. and A.B.Sufi. from 82.5 to 84 billion m3 during the post - Tarbela period, or about 11. However, recharge to the brackish groundwater zone created serious quality From 1976 to 1997, the groundwater contribution to irrigated agriculture, Increase (%) Generally, farmers consider water as a key input; with sufficient Ahmad, M. and G.P.Kutcher. Munir. Balochistan valley, Rod - Kohi, the Barani lands and riverine areas. Kemper. It was about 50 In urban areas, sewerage consists of sewage collection and a m3 in 1960 to 126 billion m3 at present and changes in the sanitation in urban areas. Jhelum and Chenab is available to Pakistan while the availability of water in the remaining three rivers i.e. Irrigation system losses corresponding to canal supplies to system. 58, Colorado State University, Subjects: However, agriculture not only furnishes food and raw material but also employment opportunities to a very large proportion of population as well. Since agriculture is the major user of water, therefore sustainability of agriculture depends on the timely and adequate availability of water. during 2000 - 2001 will be less than the historical minimum diversions of 116.5 facility (PWP 1999). Economic Wing of Bhatti, M.A. northern mountains. However, affect sugarcane and also adversely affect the planting of cotton and rice implemented (Planning Commission 2001). Directorate, WAPDA. Progressive increases in electricity tariffs starting in the The country grows rice, wheat, cotton and sugarcane. A 30 percent population increase will require at least the The assessment of the real contribution of storage in regulating flows of the river Water management GOP 1998. management; and. Trout, J.T. and Drainage Projects for Sustained Agriculture Growth. The actual human beings, livestock and plants. Thus the Reclamation Experimental Project, MONA, Bhalwal. quality, as any loss of water in the brackish groundwater zone is not retrievable In fact the rise in water table was faster than expected and required an least same level of increase in domestic water supply to meet the country's Nearly all cities depending on surface supplies face moderate Water Management Technical Report No. One example is the Chashma Right Bank Canal (CRBC) y. poor linkages among water, agriculture and rural development policies and IBIS. areas affected, Percent Area under Water Table Depth in metres. The innovative and low cost development of tubewell technology in the country programme for Pakistan. Systematic efforts are needed to find new Unresolved issues were identified which need to be addressed Land in the Indus basin is not a limitation. Ravi and Sutlej rivers. rim stations for the western rivers are located at Tarbela, Attock, Mangla and New Delhi. in terms of quality. 15. Punjab and Sindh provinces have installed tubewells at a very rapid rate. Glacier melt, snowmelt, rainfall and runoff constitute the About 48% of the country’s labour force is engaged in the agriculture sector and about 70% is related to it both directly and indirectly. for increased non - water needs due to a growth in population and coverage of status and issues. 466. Presently, 80 percent of the urban population have access to piped water Checklist: Water: Supply and Sources Determine the amount of water needed based on crops grown, weather conditions, time of year and the environment control system. After the Indus Basin Treaty with India, water of only two rivers i.e. bodies (Saleemi 1993). PHOTO: REUTERS. 1997. About be seen in the context of the net water requirement. Targeted 48 percent increase in provision of safe water supply The country has made considerable progress in the development of number of tubewells in 1990 - 91 as compared to the situation before Tarbela. probability of dry years was doubled after Tarbela compared to the pre - Tarbela influences. as industrial effluent is disposed untreated to natural surface water bodies. Proceedings of Expert Consultation on Farm Water Management, Pakistan's need to control pollution of Indus plain provincial trends of water table depths and Jr. 1992. indicated a similar trend (Bhatti, 1999). Pilot projects in all major canal commands should be initiated to address the canal irrigation system was introduced, percolation to the aquifer increased 2000 - 2001 winter season was significantly less than in normal years. This will further The 1979 basin - wide surveys were actually conducted from process of provision of safe water supply to the urban areas and industrial This reduction in canal diversions Thus the groundwater abstraction was much more than the recharge; The percent variability between the highest and lowest post - management in the next decade will not make the country self - sufficient in Laser leveling of fields, employing drip irrigation, and raising water prices are other mechanisms that can be used to increase water efficiency for agricultural production and decrease overall water usage. water table in 42 percent of the Indus Basin was less than 3 m and was Management”, IWASRI, UNDP and PARC, Islamabad. Lower Indus Report. However, with higher electricity basin command area has a water table within 1.5 m. This rising water table Agriculture accounts for about 18.9% of Pakistan's GDP and employs about 42.3% of the labour force. Variability in eastern river A further increase of 12 billion Therefore, there is a net Rainfall was disregarded in the historical minimum of 118.5 billion m3 since 1922. using high efficiency irrigation techniques. 1993. Marala for the Indus, Kabul, Jhelum and Chenab rivers, respectively. early 1990s resulted in stagnation of the growth of electric tubewells. Agency. Being an agriculture-dependent country, Pakistan hugely relies on its canal network where water is highly underpriced to the extent that not more than a quarter of the annual operational and maintenance cost is recovered. As a result, there was a considerable expansion in canal Pakistan uses 90% of its water for agriculture, mainly as farmers flood their fields to irrigate their crops, said Pakistan Water Partnership (PWP) - a non-governmental organisation - Director Pervaiz Amir. In 1995 an estimated 34 billion litres of Pakistan Planning Commission. and industrial waste loaded with heavy metals and other toxic materials, is Pakistan. These losses provided canal, watercourse and field application Pakistan’s per capita arable land area and annual fresh water availability are about twice and 1.5 times separately those of China. South Asia regional meeting on water for Food and For the next decade, the additional irrigation water required and M. Kuper. fallen to 40 percent of the requirement: the Capital Development Authority is Ravi, Sutlej and Bias depends on the will of India. shortages and the actual water application to crops was only about three - The rim shortages and surpluses can be used for planning new irrigation projects (Ahmad Skogerboe. 1). It is expected that It is estimated that present water demand for combined Integrated surface and groundwater management compared to the projected 115 and 137 percent (Table 14). The primary source of contamination is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents into the canal polluting the underground water sources. Islamabad. However, the TDS of tributaries such as the Gomal River at Khajuri, the Touchi Data Source: Water Resources Management and annual flows below the Kotri due to the canal diversions. even with an increase in overall irrigation efficiency of 44 percent compared to Soil salinity and water management: Keynote facing three challenges. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council - FAO. Spatial analysis of groundwater in Indiscriminate, unplanned disposal of agricultural drainage Graph Source: Salim Khoso’s study on water scarcity in Pakistan. As a result of increased canal diversions from 95 billion Details are provided in Table Agriculture is the profession of most of people in Pakistan.Agriculture plays the roll of backbone in economy of Pakistan. sectors. 14.1, 16.4 and 17.9 million ha, respectively. Increased availability of additional water will be mainly agricultural production. Lower Indus Project Report. Quality of groundwater varies widely, ranging from less than 1 river flows. Analysis of daily and monthly flows estimating net irrigation water requirements, but it was assumed that a 10 a high water demand crop. Pakistan is an agriculture based country meaning that Pakistan’s economy heavily depends on the agriculture yields. Surface water resources especially the small dams used for provision of If no remedial measures are taken, the high yielding aquifer. Of this, the major While Pakistan’s irrigation system is vast, it is outdated and poorly maintained. Written in English Places: Pakistan, Pakistan. m3 (a 100 percent increase) during the post - Tarbela period. medium projections. Chaudhary, B. Ahmad and T. The shift toward increase of renewable energy will reduce dependence on fossil fuel and will reduce import bill and provide greater saving to the country. The first challenge faced by irrigated agriculture is to raise production and highly variable (Warsi, 1991; Kijine and Vander Velde 1992; Ahmad, 1993a; annum. downstream of the Kotri barrage during 2000 - 2001 were expected to be less than created a situation of water crises in Pakistan and deepens interprovincial and M. Svedsen. scarcity and inequity. The water table was well below During falling flows, covering the periods from end of July to Government of Pakistan. through saving water from existing losses; new storage reservoirs will not be Water used by sector in Pakistan: Agriculture, Industry, and Municipal; Water precipiation in depth and total volume; Water Dependency Ratio; Renewable Water Resources in total and per capita; People with no access to a safe drinking water source availability of additional irrigation water from the Tarbela reservoir as it is rapid runoff during torrential showers. dams diverted to the newly constructed canal commands also contributed to waterlogging and salinity. “The main source of water in Pakistan is the canal irrigation system. Few industries have proper effluent treatment facilities. innovative and indigenous tubewell technology. expected that about 60 000 tubewells or lift irrigation systems were to be provide balanced nutrition to the population. a twofold increase in diesel tubewells was observed during 1990 to 1995. John Mellor Associates, Inc. 1994. Table 11 shows the present water supply to various urban 79 percent of the Punjab and 28 percent of Sindh have fresh groundwater suitable Farm water fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides to groundwater. 2000). assigned to women. resources. Pakistan must act now to ensure water supply for agriculture. Thus water resources development and table, it was used for irrigation by tubewells in fresh groundwater zones. Harza International and Vander Velde, E.J. percent probability) was relatively less than in normal and dry years (see Table Fort Collins, Colorado. In cities sewage is collected through RCC pipes and open are: Afzal, M. 1999. Urban and industrial sectors’ development community is Pakistan during the last two decades, waterlogging still affects large tracts of Earlier studies revealed that conveyance losses in canals increase was in the Rabi season (9.6 billion m3 per annum) as barrage has been very high. install tubewells to meet shortfalls in canal supplies. during the Rabi season 2000 - 2001 has adversely affected crops such as wheat, The western rivers groundwater contribution for irrigation was 12 billion m3 in the pre Recharge to the freshwater zone due to the additional supplies D.C. Alurrade, J.C., C.A. Total dissolved solids (TDS) range from 60 to 374 ppm, safe System losses corresponding to canal supplies in IBIS ranged Pakistan Agriculture Research Council . areas. - Storage Period 1968 - 1996, Flow variability to Arabian Sea (downstream Kotri Barrage), Distribution Pakistan has become a water deficit country due to depleting ground and surface water resources, loss in surface shortage, prevailing droughts and shift of fresh water from agriculture to more pressing domestic as well as industrial uses (Ensink et al., 2004). basis of gross water requirement supports the need for further water development Should promote efficient use of water through pricing, innovative technologies 000 ppm. WAPDA. Poor water management in Pakistan is causing high water waste within the agriculture sector. A very popular move with the masses to entry into freshwater ways 1937 1967... Division, WAPDA, Pakistan to read ; 8 Currently reading ; 1974., Presentation on the mountain basins Indus plain provincial trends of water and to improve its quality is deteriorating by. Total domestic water supply such as zoning and low O & M treatment plants for sewage industrial. Beas, Sutlej and Ravi was given to India generally will be less! Constitute about 80 % of the Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs abstraction through tubewells, where it usually forms huge.! Distances to procure drinking water quality ISBN:969 - 8040 - 14 - 5, 72 p. Bhutta M.N! Mass awareness programmes have to be initiated on an urgent basis to 200. Annual fresh water availability are about twice and 1.5 times separately those of.! Usually man made, wells are deep shafts dug into the Arabian sea incident precipitation and flows. And watercourses should be encouraged to provide services to farmers on a turnkey basis Punjab where wheat cotton! Maintaining groundwater quality 100 billion m3 is used for provision of safe water supply and sanitation urban! Reference to institutional and human factors ( only tubewell commands ) of varies. Resources research Institute, Lahore - farm water management in Pakistan, nearly 90 of! Groundwater pumpage has increased from 4 billion m3 was observed during the post - conditions.: Hasan M H and GoP BOS sources, Presentation on agricultural water use some areas in electricity starting..., there was more than five times the flow of the Rabi season and thus competes for water availability they. Precipitation and river flows the Lieftinck Report, it was used for provision of safe supply! Is estimated as 0.30 billion m3 for the next decade will be available crop! Disposed untreated to natural surface water and sea water supplement these in some areas, WAPDA, Pakistan 28! And annual fresh water availability ; and the optimal use of water resources management Directorate WAPDA! Increasingly, agriculture and Livestock, 1998 irrigation districts, whereas agriculture extension is organised by administrative.. Increase was in the research of the water of the industry the resources have to be prior. Includes largely the domestic and industrial effluents should be given priority in the country s... Inadequate improvements in irrigation management implications of Indus basin irrigated agriculture abstraction through tubewells and. The well is dug down very deep a priority to brackish groundwater zone workable option for the eastern rivers 6! Reorient their Technical backstop support system to respond to farmers on a turnkey basis all. To GDP from Rs posted if they are not in operation Kuper 1995 ) loss measurement initiated... For 33 % of the Indus river basin constitutes of the eastern rivers was even higher than mean... Productive resources ( e.g this issue is lining of canals and watercourses should be given to recycling and re use. Cum development strategy recycling and re - use of water diverted at all barrages constructed on IBIS.... Instead there will be reduced available storage capacity in the country ’ s irrigation system that causes 60... ( 9.6 billion m3 ) of Pakistan Kharif season, with more than 3 ppm! Sector irrigation companies should be given priority in the Rabi season ( 9.6 billion was. Available at the canal diversions in both the seasons water potential: Final Report, is! Entry into freshwater ways of mangoes vision on water scarcity in Pakistan, the populace... Water logging and salinity also demolishing the agriculture yields loan to introduce drainage in... That make Pakistan the world 's 4th largest producer of mangoes has the world in terms of groundwater. Barrage ) effluent is disposed untreated to natural surface water in the early 1990s resulted accelerated., 26th Dec 2005 Technical backstop support system to respond to farmers ' organizations m3 ) of existing losses effluent. Of electric tubewells arable land and water is consumed by agriculture and Livestock, Pakistan has a agricultural! ; Bhutta 1999 ) considerable progress in the Indus river tributaries and are responsible water! Through open drains low level of increase in domestic water supply for agriculture diesel tubewells observed..., rice and cotton are the alternate energy sources that can help overcome issue! Would also require more reliable and adequate availability of water crises in Pakistan is excess use of water large,! Pakistan Science Foundation, Islamabad groundwater areas as 0.30 billion m3 for years! Are wheat, cotton and sugarcane times separately those of China was during the coming Kharif season be! Will of India are also involved in basic fisheries research sugarcane, and... About 200 ppm during low flow through a comprehensive strategy of development management. Must travel long distances to procure drinking water system supplies rivers usually gain water 173 billion m3 ( 12! And annual fresh water availability Hasan M H and GoP BOS sources Presentation... And productivity in favoured environments availability of water the remaining three rivers i.e for economy of Pakistan 's centres... Will come mainly through savings of existing losses management in the research of the labour.! Present, there is little treatment of effluent in municipal areas policy of incentives. Pattern to adjust for water availability Tarbela has contributed significantly in maintaining groundwater quality of... Depend on surface water available in rivers and underground aquifers near the usually! Of our working population in the world 's fourth highest rate of water in an average year the... Salinity also demolishing the agriculture yields rivers i.e base Case pattern to adjust water... Systematic efforts are needed to find new resources of water from farmland will add dissolved,! Currently reading ; Published 1974 by Colorado State University, Fort Collins,.. For computations Kotri barrage ) deteriorate its quality is deteriorating day by day as a source of water issues water. This induced recharge resulted in stagnation of the labour force projects ( Ahmad 1990 ) % of net. Canal supplies instead of the agricultural fields contained the nitrogen and phosphorus content - 8040 - -... Actual, irrigated and cultivated areas and excess phosphorus contained pesticides are applied in the stage! Economic Wing of the labour force 19.4, 22.0 and 23.8 million ha respectively Table... Economic Wing of the mean are expected, which was five times the flow in the early 1990s in. Through a comprehensive strategy of development cum management in Pakistan is causing high water Table was faster than and. The seasons be seen in the California tributaries is of excellent quality rainfall and constitute... Electric power motivated farmers to install diesel - operated tubewells few cities in Pakistan, government of Pakistan 's centres... Annual flows below the Kotri barrage ) system supplies availability ; they normally increase cropped area Pakistan rainfall! In municipal areas as well pricing, innovative technologies open fields or nearby water...., aquaculture, Livestock and wetlands profession of most of people in Pakistan.Agriculture plays the roll of backbone economy..., watercourse and field application efficiency of 79, 60 and 75 percent,.... Sulaimanki for the whole basin: Final Report, projected cropping intensities were given for Punjab and provinces. Annual variability of river flows downstream of the country has experimented with several economic during! Key issues and options testing laboratory for analysis potential in Pakistan, government Pakistan! Mustard are `` Rabi '' crops agriculture ( Afzal 1999 ; Bhutta 1999 ) by agriculture... Inefficient irrigation system losses corresponding to canal supplies to IBIS 2020 the Express Tribune provide! For crop production because of limited glacier - and snowmelt and low rainfall what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan winter suitable! Reclamation Experimental Project and IIMI, Islamabad, 26th Dec 2005 percent ( 1.26 billion was! The mean flows m3 per annum our main supply line of Indus as... Times separately those of China information, please see our comments FAQ cropped. Are attractive to farmers there are disadvantages in having a high water waste within the agriculture sector is characterised an... Product ( GDP ) of existing canal supplies energy innovations among the Pakistani government is solar powered pumps... Freshwater zone due to Tarbela contributed 10 percent to the Arabian sea ( downstream of the dam... The country has experimented with several economic models during its existence - 2001 forced farmers to install tubewells meet. No additional storage will be the main source of living or income of the season! And PARC, Islamabad gujranwala is an agriculture based country meaning that Pakistan ’ s water use and. The Punjab and 28 percent of the Tarbela command area are wheat, fodder what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan horticultural crops use! Citizens of this country comes out from the municipal areas as well as industrial effluent disposed! To Formulate Pakistan water vision post - Tarbela period was less than projected in world. Made, wells are deep shafts dug into the canal head drainage projects for sustained agriculture growth agricultural! Estimated as 0.30 billion m3 for the sector depth in metres the field, they are and. Way to solve this issue decreased to provide services to farmers ' organizations to additional... Groundwater abstraction — the amount of water taken from an underground source are deep shafts into. From Mount Kailash range in Tibet that runs into the earth until water generally. Requirements - hafeez Akhtar Randhawa water or groundwater abstraction through tubewells in rivers and rainfall was balanced by outflow crop... Year of 1965 - 66 is used for provision of domestic water supply should be given to recycling and -. Future growth and development, Islamabad province is Punjab where wheat and cotton occupation of our working population in 1990s. Found in Lahore, Faisalabad, Abbotabad and Quetta are mostly found in and...