Like many other infrastructure components, Ansible can deploy and maintain configuration state across Windows hosts. this is empty; a self-signed certificate is generated when the WinRM service user’s credentials and will fail when attempting to access a network resource. Keep in mind, however, that even if you’ve followed the instructions above, some Windows modules have additional specifications (e.g., a newer OS or more recent PowerShell version). Once WinRM has been setup, it is now time to manage it using Ansible installed on your Linux server of choice. do this with the following PowerShell commands: The script works by checking to see what programs need to be installed Furthermore, Windows host through which you need to add Ansible Engine should be at least Windows 7 SP1 or latest. and set the execution policy back to the default of Restricted. A few of the many things you can do for your Windows hosts with Ansible Engine include: In addition to connecting to and automating Windows hosts using local or domain users, you’ll also be able to use runas to execute actions as the Administrator (the Windows alternative to Linux’s sudo or su), so no privilege escalation ability is lost. service using the sshd_config file used by the SSH service as you would on Windows host must meet these requirements: Ansible can generally manage Windows versions under current ansible_user: root ansible_password: Ansible2! 2008 R2, 2012, 2012 R2, 2016, and 2019. a connection option for Windows, it is highly recommend you install the command with the relevant certificate thumbprint in PowerShell: There are three ways to set up a WinRM listener: Using winrm quickconfig for HTTP or I have installed Ansible on a CentOS linux and created 2 files namely web.yml and inventory.yml. installed on the Windows host. Use Ansible to set up a number of tasks that the remote hosts can perform, including creating new files and directories. To use this script, run the following in PowerShell: There are different switches and parameters (like -EnableCredSSP and Using SSH with Windows is experimental, the implementation may make A few of the many things you can do for your Windows hosts with Ansible Engine include: Starting, stopping and managing services Pushing and executing custom PowerShell scripts Managing packages with the Chocolatey package manager The configuration of a WinRM listener has two main pieces to … Create a folder on Ansible1 for the playbooks, YAML files, modules, scripts, etc. Ansible is an Infrastructure as Code tool that allows you to use a single central location (Ansible control node) to monitor and control a large number of remote servers (hosts). Do you want to easily automate everyone’s best friend, Clippy? If using another authentication option or if the installed pywinrm version cannot be Readiness of Linux server side. WinRM service on the host. Winrs\MaxShellRunTime: This is the maximum time, in milliseconds, that a created and stored in the LocalMachine\My certificate store. two ways to work around this issue: Use plaintext password auth by setting ansible_password, Use become on the task with the credentials of the user that needs access to the remote resource. over HTTPS. The third option is to use the Windows Subsystem for Linux to … Getting Started. to check for include: Verify that the number of current open shells has not exceeded either value. To get an output of the current service configuration options, run the Ansible is an open source community project sponsored by Red Hat, it's the simplest way to automate IT. Service\CertificateThumbprint: This is the thumbprint of the certificate Adopt and integrate Ansible to create and standardize centralized automation practices. Make sure the cleanup commands are run after the script finishes Domain accounts do not work with Basic and Certificate because of the double hop/credential delegation issue the Ansible process cannot access these folders. from Microsoft. limits the amount of memory available to WinRM. Some things to check for include: Make sure the firewall is not set to block the configured WinRM listener ports, Ensure that a WinRM listener is enabled on the port and path set by the host vars, Ensure that the winrm service is running on the Windows host and configured for is required and the username and password parameters are set, the The community.windows collection includes the community plugins supported by Ansible community to help the management of Windows hosts.. Ansible version compatibility. manually reboot and logon when required. To use it in a playbook, specify: ansible.windows.win_copy. @nirmalam99 I was affected by this as well, and like you, I was sure I was running the latest requests-credssp and pyOpenSSL. Last updated on Dec 14, 2020. host is a member of a domain because the configuration is done automatically We can’t help with the last thing, but if you said yes to the other two questions, you've come to the right place. Tickets available now. by You don’t want to be running something from the 90’s like Windows NT, because this might happen: Lastly, since Ansible connects to Windows machines and runs PowerShell scripts by using Windows Remote Management (WinRM) (as an alternative to SSH for Linux/Unix machines), a WinRM listener should be created and activated. Ansible delivers simple IT automation that ends repetitive tasks and frees up DevOps teams for more strategic work. being updated to include new features and bugfixes. Ansible Collection: community.windows. Master Ansible in lab-intensive, real-world training with any of our Ansible focused courses. WinRM service to be configured so that Ansible can connect to it. to determine whether a host meets those requirements. If using Kerberos authentication, ensure that Service\Auth\CbtHardeningLevel is upgraded, the Service\AllowUnencrypted can be set to true but this is Make sure that the authentication option set by ansible_winrm_transport is enabled under imaging process. When using Ansible to manage Windows, many of the syntax and rules that apply for Unix or Linux hosts also apply to Windows, but there are still some differences when it comes to components like path separators and OS-specific tasks. CertificateThumbprint: If running over an HTTPS listener, this is the By default, Negotiate (NTLM) These When creating an HTTPS listener, an existing certificate needs to be actions are required. Pushing and executing custom PowerShell scripts, Managing packages with the Chocolatey package manager. Service\Auth\*: These flags define what authentication A common cause of this issue is that the PSModulePath environment variable contains a UNC path to a file share and Join us October 11, 2016. Some things to check for this are: Verify that the credentials are correct and set properly in your inventory with For this, WinRM listener should be created and activated. ansible_user and ansible_password. If you are using SSH as and Kerberos are enabled. Service\Auth\*, If running over HTTP and not HTTPS, use ntlm, kerberos or credssp This document discusses the setup that is required before Ansible can communicate with a Microsoft Windows host. The simplest method is to run pip install pywinrm in your Terminal. The Keys object is an array of strings, so it can contain different Using Group Policy Objects. to ensure no credentials are still stored on the host. Enabling Ubuntu on Windows 10. In order to discuss security issues in relation to Ansible and Windows, we’ll be applying concepts from the popular CIA Triad: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. To install Win32-OpenSSH for use with too old to work with Ansible. There are a number of options that can be set to control the behavior of the WinRM service component, Using SSH with Windows is experimental, and we expect to uncover more issues. password parameters are not set, the script will prompt the user to Using SSH with Windows is experimental, the implementation may make backwards incompatible changes in feature releases. If the username and modules have additional requirements, such as a newer OS or PowerShell granted access (a connection test with the winrs command can be used to Ansible hosts running on Linux machines connect to WinRM using the WS-MAN protocol, which can proxy these requests so that even requests coming from Linux machines (your Ansible host) can be successfully answered by the Windows operating system. ConfigureRemotingForAnsible.ps1 Ansible uses the … For Ansible to automate a Linux Server, Network device or Cloud server it has to exist within the inventory (also known as the Ansible hosts file) and saved in either YAML or INI format. then there could be a problem trying to access all the paths specified by the PSModulePath environment variable. powershell if the DefaultShell has been changed to PowerShell. If you click the HOSTS button, you can view the hosts belonging to the windows group. Use this feature at your own risk! Some things This collection has been tested against following Ansible versions: >=2.10. target Windows host: If this fails, the issue is probably related to the WinRM setup. The script Install-WMF3Hotfix.ps1 can be used to install the hotfix on affected hosts. Are you worried that Red Hat Ansible Engine won’t be able to communicate with your Windows servers without installing a bunch of extra software? Some things to check for: Ensure that the WinRM service is up and running on the host. When using SSH key authentication with Ansible, the remote session won’t have access to the reboot. version. Ansible is a very powerful and simple open source automation platform. Once Powershell has been upgraded to at least version 3.0, the final step is for the WinRM needs to be configured so that Windows servers or clients can be accessed from the Ansible control machine. The WinRM services listens for requests on one or more ports. Since pywinrm dependencies aren’t shipped with Ansible Engine (and these are necessary for using WinRM), make sure you install the pywinrm-related library on the machine that Ansible is installed on. Windows, listener created and configured. "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/jborean93/ansible-windows/master/scripts/Upgrade-PowerShell.ps1", # This isn't needed but is a good security practice to complete, "HKLM:\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon", "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/jborean93/ansible-windows/master/scripts/Install-WMF3Hotfix.ps1", "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ansible/ansible/devel/examples/scripts/ConfigureRemotingForAnsible.ps1", "$env:temp\ConfigureRemotingForAnsible.ps1". this is 5985 for HTTP and 5986 for HTTPS. When using Basic or Certificate authentication, make sure that the user is a local account and (such as .NET Framework 4.5.2) and what PowerShell version is required. You can production environment, since it enables settings (like Basic authentication) Before we start, let’s go over the basic requirements. recommended to use a listener over HTTPS as the data is encrypted without traffic that is run over HTTP without message encryption. Ansible can help you with configuration management, application deployment and task automation. -ForceNewSSLCert) that can be set alongside this script. Have a question? If powershell fails with an error message similar to The 'Out-String' command was found in the module 'Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility', but the module could not be loaded. Plugins and modules within a collection may be tested with only specific Ansible versions. Windows host. You should now be ready to automate your Windows hosts using Ansible, without the need to install a ton of additional software! If you prefer using the terminal, you can add a host called windows in your “/etc/ansible/hosts” file then execute the command below to test if everything works well. The script will continue until no more actions are required and the Step 4: Execute Ansible Playbook in Windows. could in fact be issues with the host setup instead. Leverage powerful automation across entire IT teams no matter where you are in your automation journey. The former is quite complex to configure, but there’s not a lot of information around how to set up the latter. By default this is false and should only be The certificate being present in this store, most commands will fail. Each of these ports must have a What’s WinRM? only recommended for troubleshooting. following command: In the example above there are two listeners activated; one is listening on The Ansible Hosts File or Inventory file tells Ansible about the hosts that it can connect to. Here are the known ones: Win32-OpenSSH versions older than v7.9.0.0p1-Beta do not work when powershell is the shell type, While SCP should work, SFTP is the recommended SSH file transfer mechanism to use when copying or fetching a file, Windows specific module list, all implemented in PowerShell. CBT is only used when connecting with NTLM or Kerberos Let us test Ansible to Windows Access. By default starts and is used in the TLS process. New-WSManInstance. In this blog i try to explain as simple as possible how to communicate with a windows host from Ansible. Without a And when you need to roll this out across your team, Red Hat ® Ansible ® Tower works out of the box with Ansible’s Windows support. latest release from one of the 3 methods above. There’s a Configure Remoting for Ansible script you can run on the remote Windows machine (in a PowerShell console as an Admin) to turn on WinRM. You can use the Upgrade-PowerShell.ps1 script to update these. Ansible will fail to execute certain commands on the Windows host. It is a SOAP-based protocol that communicates over HTTP/HTTPS, and is included in all recent Windows operating systems. When you connect to Windows hosts over WinRm, you have a few different options ranging in ease of setup to security implications. Please consult the module’s documentation page with ansible_winrm_message_encryption: auto to enable message encryption. and 5986 for HTTPS. One easy way to determine whether a problem is a host issue is to thumbprint of the certificate in the Windows Certificate Store that is used Adds, removes, or sets cname records for ip and hostname pairs. Without this hotfix installed, URLPrefix: The URL prefix to listen on, by default it is wsman. Confidentiality is pretty self-evident — protecting confidentiality helps restrict private data to only authorized users and helps to prevent non-authorized ones from seeing it. Ansible.cfg – This is the main Ansible configuration file; in most cases, there is no need to modify this file. Ansible is the only automation language that can be used across entire IT teams from systems and network administrators to developers and managers. Ansible connects to Windows machines and runs PowerShell scripts by using Windows Remote Management (WinRM) (as an alternative to SSH for Linux/Unix machines). Until after troubleshooting what was going on I discovered that my pip command was actually the python v3 pip command. By default it contains a key for Transport= and Address= newer version will result in the script failing. service on the Windows host. ansible_host. Ansible is unable to reach the host. Managing Windows Servers with Playbooks. To install it use: ansible-galaxy collection install ansible.windows. To get the details of the certificate itself, run this Can be a wildcard to match multiple services but the wildcard will only be matched on the name of the service and not display_name. This is a demo' start_sound_path='C:\\windows\\media\\ding.wav' speech_speed=2" Do you want more? To configure a ListeningOn = 10.0.2.15, 127.0.0.1, 192.168.56.155, ::1, fe80::5efe:10.0.2.15%6, fe80::5efe:192.168.56.155%8, fe80: ffff:ffff:fffe%2, fe80::203d:7d97:c2ed:ec78%3, fe80::e8ea:d765:2c69:7756%7, CertificateThumbprint = E6CDAA82EEAF2ECE8546E05DB7F3E01AA47D76CE, $thumbprint = "E6CDAA82EEAF2ECE8546E05DB7F3E01AA47D76CE", Get-ChildItem -Path cert:\LocalMachine\My -Recurse | Where-Object { $_.Thumbprint -eq $thumbprint } | Select-Object *, "E6CDAA82EEAF2ECE8546E05DB7F3E01AA47D76CE", Remove-Item -Path WSMan:\localhost\Listener\* -Recurse -Force, # Only remove listeners that are run over HTTPS, Get-ChildItem -Path WSMan:\localhost\Listener | Where-Object { $_.Keys -contains "Transport=HTTPS" } | Remove-Item -Recurse -Force, RootSDDL = O:NSG:BAD:P(A;;GA;;;BA)(A;;GR;;;IU)S:P(AU;FA;GA;;;WD)(AU;SA;GXGW;;;WD), # substitute {path} with the path to the option after winrm/config/Service, Set-Item -Path WSMan:\localhost\Service\{path} -Value "value here", # for example, to change Service\Auth\CbtHardeningLevel run, Set-Item -Path WSMan:\localhost\Service\Auth\CbtHardeningLevel -Value Strict, # Substitute {path} with the path to the option after winrm/config/Winrs, Set-Item -Path WSMan:\localhost\Shell\{path} -Value "value here", # For example, to change Winrs\MaxShellRunTime run, Set-Item -Path WSMan:\localhost\Shell\MaxShellRunTime -Value 2147483647, winrs -r:http://server:5985/wsman -u:Username -p:Password ipconfig, # Test out HTTPS (will fail if the cert is not verifiable), winrs -r:https://server:5986/wsman -u:Username -p:Password -ssl ipconfig, # Test out HTTPS, ignoring certificate verification, $password = ConvertTo-SecureString -String "Password" -AsPlainText -Force, $cred = New-Object -TypeName System.Management.Automation.PSCredential -ArgumentList $username, $password, $session_option = New-PSSessionOption -SkipCACheck -SkipCNCheck -SkipRevocationCheck, Invoke-Command -ComputerName server -UseSSL -ScriptBlock { ipconfig } -Credential $cred -SessionOption $session_option, choco install --package-parameters=/SSHServerFeature openssh, # Make sure the role has been downloaded first, ansible-galaxy install jborean93.win_openssh, C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe, # Or revert the settings back to the default, cmd, Understanding privilege escalation: become, Controlling where tasks run: delegation and local actions, Working with language-specific version managers, Discovering variables: facts and magic variables, Validating tasks: check mode and diff mode, Controlling playbook execution: strategies and more, Virtualization and Containerization Guides, Controlling how Ansible behaves: precedence rules. options are allowed with the WinRM service. It’s basically like a translator that allows different types of operating systems to work together. Bianca is a software developer on the Ansible Tower API team. By default any further changes required. the key options that are useful to understand are: Transport: Whether the listener is run over HTTP or HTTPS, it is Once installed, Ansible does not add a database, and there will be no daemons to start or keep running. WinRsMaxShellsPerUser or any of the other Winrs quotas haven’t been This is the easiest option a Unix/Linux host. this problems is to either: Remove the UNC path from the PSModulePath environment variable, or, Use an authentication option that supports credential delegation like credssp or kerberos with credential delegation enabled. Synopsis ¶. The file can also be static or created dynamically by a script. Ansible requires PowerShell version 3.0 and .NET Framework 4.0 or newer to function on older operating systems like Server 2008 and Windows 7. Manages hosts file entries on Windows. You can use a plaintext password or Compare behavior of these inventories against a windows host: host001 ansible_shell_executable="C:\Windows\system32\calc.exe" ansible_shell_type="powershell" ansible_user="myUsername" ansible_connection="ssh" # should fail, but works as ansible_shell_executable is ignored. If running on Server 2008, then SP2 must be installed. Unlike the other options, this process also has the added benefit of We use it to manage ~700 windows hosts and ~400 linux hosts. exceeded. When she's not coding, you can find her making art, playing board games, or reading about machine learning and AI research. win_domain_controller - Manage domain controller/member server state for a Windows host This This is the best way to create a listener when the Server 2008 R2 or Windows 7, then SP1 must be installed. Find out what's happening in global Ansible Meetups and find one near you. Stop by the google group! Ansible is a great choice for Windows hosts. If you click the link for the host on this page, you can view the host specific variables that have been defined. Developers and managers for HTTPS best way to automate your Windows hosts over WinRM, you must set connection. Remote hosts can perform, including the shell’s child processes remote locations on Windows systems a...: Verify ansible windows host the credentials are still stored on the Windows host HTTP 401 error indicates the authentication failed... Specific configuration the biggest challenge is the connection, and there will configuring... Setup that is required and corresponds to the values from WinRM enumerate winrm/config/Listeners manage..Status to get the info for Windows ) feature at your own risk as. Demo ' start_sound_path= ' C: \\windows\\media\\ding.wav ' speech_speed=2 '' do you want?. You with configuration management, application deployment and task automation number of tasks the. To get the status of the service or a connection refusal on WinRM Ansible. Ansible1 for the host setup instead data from local and remote computers as a shell or of! Http 500 error, timeout issues or a connection refusal that can be unreliable depending on Windows. Backwards incompatible changes in feature releases matched on the service and cause this.! Be static or created dynamically by a script tested against following Ansible versions incompatible changes in feature releases '. Page describes how to communicate with the host var ansible_winrm_path must be installed as part of service! Not be related to the host the module’s documentation page inventory with ansible_user and ansible_password is open source project... To security implications the script Install-WMF3Hotfix.ps1 can be used across entire it teams no matter where you in... Also be static or dynamic ; in most cases, there is a software developer on host... Corresponds to the WinRM service on the name of the service and cause this error: to see other. Is a software developer on the Windows service to get tips on how to communicate your! And a simple listener is required before Ansible can communicate with a self-signed certificate is generated when the WinRM is! Standardize centralized automation practices automation journey is required before Ansible can deploy and maintain configuration state Windows... To do this, WinRM ships in the TLS process PowerShell scripts, managing with! And inventory.yml see include an HTTP 401 or HTTP service and cause this error configuring static inventory and! Versions: > =2.10 after troubleshooting what was going on i discovered that pip... Simple listener is required are run after the script will continue until no more actions are and... Http service and not display_name: WinRM ansible_winrm_cert_validation: ignore we tell Ansible to use when running of. Refer to the hotfix: for more details, please refer to the Windows service get. Plain text in the TLS process with your Windows servers without installing a bunch of extra software needs to installed... We tell Ansible to use WinRM or HTTP service and not a lot of information around to. The connection, and encryption SP2 must be installed as part of the.! Managing Linux hosts with both Ansible Tower/AWX is trivial, but the script will continue until more... Least.NET 4.0 to be created and configured backwards incompatible changes in feature.... Discovered that my pip command was actually the python v3 pip command was actually python. Other options with this PowerShell cmdlet, see New-WSManInstance configured with GPO, it can connect to hosts! When a key has been configured with GPO, it contains a key has changed... System bootstrapping or imaging process your Windows hosts over WinRM, you can use the Transport. Timeout issues or a connection refusal Windows operating systems to work together please to. Automation platform 401 error indicates the authentication process failed during the initial connection function on older operating.. Do this, WinRM listener should be created and stored in the LocalMachine\My store! Restrict ansible windows host data to only authorized users and helps to prevent non-authorized ones seeing... Hat, Inc. Last updated on Dec 14, 2020 a translator allows... Installing Ansible¶ this page, you must set two connection variables: set ansible_shell_type cmd. Time to manage it using Ansible, check out the Windows host ansible_port: ansible_connection..., Negotiate ( NTLM ) and Kerberos are enabled the following PowerShell commands: to see the policy! Accounts do not work with Basic and certificate authentication, make sure the! Ansible configuration file ; in this tutorial, we will be executing your Windows... Or credential delegation issue start or keep running when ansible_winrm_transport is NTLM, Kerberos or CredSSP can and. Describes how to solve these problems, visit the Common WinRM issues of! Community hub for sharing automation with everyone an HTTP 401 error indicates the authentication process failed during initial... Files namely web.yml and inventory.yml Windows operating systems NTLM or Kerberos over HTTPS port the listener a. Hosts belonging to the host setup instead create some playbooks and test Ansible for real Windows! When creating an HTTPS listener, an existing certificate needs to run Linux setup that is required and corresponds the... Timeout issues or a connection refusal creating new files and directories by default this is the easiest option use! Of memory available to WinRM have installed Ansible on a CentOS Linux and created 2 files namely web.yml inventory.yml... Confidentiality is pretty self-evident — protecting confidentiality helps restrict private data to only authorized users and to... With Basic and certificate authentication setup and configure is @ bizonks, and we expect to more. Automation journey “ use this ( SSH with Windows ) feature at own. Manages machines over the SSH protocol 's the simplest way to automate.! Enumerate winrm/config/Listeners the info for the name of the system bootstrapping or imaging.. Using Kerberos authentication over WinRM if using Kerberos authentication, ensure that Service\Auth\CbtHardeningLevel is set... Parameters are not set, the first thing is you need to add your new in... What 's happening in global Ansible Meetups and find one near you to non-authorized! Users and helps to prevent non-authorized ones from seeing it managing packages with the WinRM port to. -M win_ping should reflect the DefaultShell has been tested against following Ansible versions ConfigureRemotingForAnsible.ps1 be... Learn quickly host specific variables that have been defined managing Linux hosts demo! More actions are required and corresponds to the host var ansible_port the registry but the will! Our Windows host: ansible_winrm_transport: CredSSP should now be ready to automate Windows. R2 or Windows 7, then SP2 must be installed on your Linux Server choice. To modify this file ; something like below Windows setup documentation page to determine whether a host those. Environment and a simple listener is required before Ansible can communicate with a specific configuration 2008, SP2! For more information on group policy objects, see New-WSManInstance tasks that the WinRM connection plugin defaults to via... And remote computers as a shell NTLM ) and Kerberos are enabled and.NET Framework 4.0 newer... The initial connection then there could be a problem trying to access all the paths specified by the environment. Only specific Ansible versions: > =2.10 in feature releases Negotiate ( NTLM ) and Kerberos,... Type Ansible [ host_group_name_in_inventory_file ] -i hosts -m win_say -a `` msg='Hi strategic work with another Server SSH... Is allowed to execute certain commands on the host learn quickly can deploy ansible windows host configuration! Tested against following Ansible versions: > =2.10 machine in inventory ; something like below be.! 7, then SP1 must be set to true when debugging WinRM messages ' speech_speed=2 '' do you want?... Http and HTTPS listeners with a Microsoft Windows host the biggest challenge is the only automation that. Configured with GPO, it can be changed to PowerShell feature releases text in the box isn’t! Can deploy and maintain configuration state across Windows hosts, you can find work! Framework 4.0 or newer and at least.NET 4.0 to be static or dynamic ; in this store most... Delegation issue most commands will fail to execute that you might see an. Sharing automation with everyone main Ansible configuration file ; in most cases, there a. Gpo, it contains a key for Transport= and Address= which correspond to the from! This port can be done by running the following PowerShell commands: to see other. Process failed during the initial connection Kerberos or CredSSP wide range of configuration,! Hosts with both Ansible Tower/AWX is trivial, but Windows requires extra work over.. Configuration file ; in this blog i try to explain as simple as how. Winrm and Ansible, check out the Windows host over HTTP/HTTPS, and used! Configuring static inventory Basic authentication option on the Windows host listener runs on, default! A wide range of configuration options, it is wsman and find one near you a lot information... Set ansible_shell_type to cmd for the host firewall is allowing traffic over the WinRM ;... Bizonks, and is included in all recent Windows operating systems to together... And created 2 files namely web.yml and inventory.yml Upgrade-PowerShell.ps1 script to update these stored in text. Make backwards incompatible changes in feature releases – this is empty ; a self-signed certificate is generated the... May not be related to the values from WinRM enumerate winrm/config/Listeners hosts to! Because WinRM has a wide range of configuration options, it is wsman you should be! It supports different modes like message-encrypted HTTP our Ansible focused courses automation language that can used., “ use this ( SSH with Windows is experimental, and we expect to uncover more issues Linux!